Tuesday, 9 September 2014

Pegasus Bay Thumbs its Nose at Sauvignon Blanc

Pegasus Bay is located an hour’s drive north from Christchurch in the South Island of New Zealand. It’s well-worth a visit, not only because it is Waipara’s star winery, but also because a trip here will end up changing many of your conceptions about wine. Firstly that winemakers are only about wine. Pegasus Bay is staunchly a family-owned winery, but there is a surfeit of talent in the Donaldson clan that manifests itself around the business. The well-manicured gardens are the result of careful tending by the matriarch of the family, Christine Donaldson. Her stamp can also be seen in the naming of Pegasus Bay’s Reserve wines, which bear names such as Aria, Bel Canto and Encore – operatic terms that reflect Christine’s love of the arts. As a passionate singer herself, Christine used to belt out tunes in the family car on drives to the winery with her children. “It used to drive us a little bit crazy,” laughs Edward Donaldson, Pegasus Bay’s Marketing Manager, “although we’re fans of opera ourselves now.” His eldest brother Matthew is the winemaker, while youngest brother Paul works as the General Manager. Matthew also designed the logo (shown left) for Pegasus Bay’s first vintage in 1991.

Waipara (not to be confused with Wairarapa in the North Island), is a cool-climate wine region with low rainfall. There are two main types of soil here, clay-limestone and free-draining river gravels, the latter of which Pegasus Bay is planted on. The Pegasus Bay vineyards also benefit from being sheltered from the Pacific Ocean’s cool easterly breezes by the Teviotdale hills. A lack of rainfall during harvest allows for longer hang time, meaning that even late-ripening varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon can be planted here. Sauvignon Blanc forms the majority of plantings in Waipara, mostly as contract fruit sold to Villa Maria and Nobilo, but it is Riesling and Pinot Noir which this region is famous for. Many of the wineries here are small-scale producers focused on quality, a better fit for Riesling and Pinot Noir rather than mass-market Sauvignon Blanc. Professor Ivan Donaldson, who established Pegasus Bay, was convinced that Riesling could succeed in Waipara after tasting the Robard & Butler Amberley Riesling produced by Corbans in the late 1970s, a legendary wine made from locally sourced fruit. Two thirds of Pegasus Bay is now planted with Riesling and Pinot Noir.

Edward attributes part of the success of Pegasus Bay to the fact that it is run by a single family. “You’re working for yourself and so you put in more commitment and effort into it,” he says. “It can be a recipe for disaster when it goes bad but thankfully that’s never happened for us. We get on really well and there’s no animosity between us.” Each family member’s role is clearly defined so there is no overlap of responsibilities. The winery is also part of a larger “family”, the Family of Twelve association which is a grouping of family-owned estates that aim to share information and best practices. 

Within the grounds can also be found an award-winning restaurant run by Edward’s wife Belinda, which serves up local delights such as a wild hare and shiitake terrine and Canterbury lamb cutlet with puy lentils, walnut and pecorino romano. The restaurant saw an uptick in business after the Christchurch earthquakes, as many of the city’s restaurants were closed and there was a lack of dining options. On the flip side, it became much harder for the restaurant to attract skilled hospitality workers because many young locals packed up and moved to Auckland or Australia in search of jobs.

The focus on quality at Pegasus Bay led to the decision around 10 years ago to start holding back wines to let them age in bottle for a longer period. All of the wines are aged for a minimum of 12 months in bottle, some for longer. Initially, this led to a situation where they were out of stock for a long while, but the benefit is that the wines are now allowed enough time to integrate and develop complexity.

Tasting notes:
Pegasus Bay Sauvignon Blanc Semillon 2012 – Based on this wine an argument could be made for more Bordeaux-style blends in New Zealand. The Sauvignon Blanc component dominates with crisp passionfruit aromatics, but the Semillon adds some textural weight and lemon notes.

Pegasus Bay Chardonnay 2011 – Made from the Mendoza clone planted on own roots. Indigenous yeast fermentation. Refined and fresh with citrus fruit character. The oak is well-handled, just a subtle hint of vanilla on the finish, and serves to highlight the quality of the fruit. Very good.

Pegasus Bay Bel Canto 2011 – The top dry Riesling of Pegasus Bay, this wine contains partially botrytised grapes to provide stone fruit flavours and add another dimension of complexity. There is certainly a lot of fruit extract here, with a nose of petrol reminiscent of some young Clare Valley Rieslings. Very slightly off dry, balanced by fresh acidity. 

Pegasus Bay Riesling 2011 – Picked slightly earlier than the Bel Canto with more residual sugar. Fruit forward and clean flavours with an attractive stone fruit and grapefruit profile.

Pegasus Bay Aria Late Harvest Riesling 2012 – I have always found the Aria Riesling to be outstanding, and this is no exception. Intense and concentrated with rich tropical fruit, orange marmalade, citrus peels and limey acidity with some botrytis weight, this wine delivers wave after wave of drinking pleasure.

Pegasus Bay Merlot Cabernet 2011 – Generous ripe fruit with Merlot dominating and lending flavours of black plum skin, spice and vanilla. Smooth tannins with a medium to full body, this wine is immediately approachable.

Pegasus Bay Pinot Noir 2011 – Destemmed grapes whole bunch fermented in small vats. Shows a forward and aromatic with a mix of juicy strawberries and black cherry. Fine concentration on the palate, with a finish that is long and intense.

Pegasus Bay Prima Donna 2011 – A different beast entirely from the estate Pinot Noir. This shows great depth and firmness, with the fruit profile leaning towards the darker spectrum of blackberries and black cherry. Fine, youthful tannins. Spice-filled finish with notes of chocolate malt. Outstanding. Give this prima donna the respect she deserves and let her sing only when ready.

Monday, 4 August 2014

Wine Culture Portfolio Tasting


How do you set yourself apart in a country where the wine scene is as competitive as Singapore’s? For fine wine merchant Wine Culture, the answer was to establish a presence in the restaurant industry as an avenue to showcase their offerings. This allows consumers to experience the wines before committing to a retail purchase. Wine Culture’s Executive Director Renny Heng has already opened two restaurants, Verre Wine Bar at Robertson Quay, and Shelter in the Woods at Bukit Timah. His next project is the newly opened 3,400 sq ft restaurant named Corner House, located within the Singapore Botanic Gardens and helmed by chef Jason Tan, formerly of Sky on 57 at Marina Bay Sands. One of the things I’ve liked about Wine Culture is the care that they take with their bottles, wrapping each one in plastic so that the labels don’t get damaged.

Wine Culture has a strong focus on Bordeaux and Burgundy labels, including notable producers such as Domaine Sylvain Cathiard, Domaine Emmanuel Rouget and Domaine Hudelot Noëllat for which they are exclusive distributors. Renny started visiting Burgundy back in 2000, a shrewd move considering how much in vogue the wines are currently. “Most of these wines have been with us for a very long time,” commented Vincent Tan, Restaurant Manager at Shelter in the Woods. Burgundy is a complex maze of tiny vineyards and numerous producers, and my hat goes off to anyone who can navigate the minute differences between a Puligny-Montrachet versus a Chassagne-Montrachet. By contrast, the grape varieties used are easy to remember – all whites are made from Chardonnay and all reds from Pinot Noir.

The notes in this article are from a tasting held in June and attended by several sommeliers from various restaurants in Singapore. It was a good opportunity to catch up with them, and one in particular was beaming about a SGD167k dinner bill achieved the night before from a single table, which goes to show that having a sommelier in the house really does pay for itself.

Tasting notes:
Domaine Jean- Noël Gagnard Chassagne-Montrachet Premier Cru Blanchot Dessus 2006 – The estate has been run by Caroline l’Estimé since 1989. She is known for moving the winery towards organics and increasing the number of white wines by vinifying each premier cru vineyard separately. This wine has a pale lemon colour with medium intensity aromatics of honey, acacia and vanilla. The palate reveals lovely citrus fruit and orange pith, with refreshing acidity and a very long finish.

Lucien le Moine Nuits-Saint-Georges Premier Cru Terre Blanche 2009 – Set up in 1999 by Mounir Saouma, who hails from Lebanon, and his Israeli wife Rotem Brakin. As pure négociants, they buy in ready-made wines and age them in Jupilles oak without racking, pumping, fining or filtering. The wines spend a long time on their lees (dead yeast) which accounts for their rich, yoghurt-like flavours. There was no lees stirring for the 2009 Nuits-Saint-Georges, and the wine shows a fine, seductive perfume with cashew and hazelnuts coming to the fore. It maintains a high level of acidity, with a broad frame and punchy flavours. The finish is bright and long.

Château de la Maltroye, Santenay Premier Cru la Comme 2009 – Quite a rarity to find a white wine from Santenay. This example was fresh and light, with delicate honeysuckle aromas and a persistent finish. Refined and an utter joy to drink.

Domaine Buisson-Charles Meursault 2010 – Michel Buisson has since handed over the reins of the winery to his daughter and son-in-law Catherine and Patrick Essa. The wine is textbook Meursault, showing rich honeyed aromas and a broad texture with hints of nougat and custard mixed with musk melon notes.

Domaine du Nozay Sancerre 2012 – This Sauvignon Blanc-based wine shows varietal notes of passionfruit, lemongrass and herbs. The emphasis here is more on the fruit than aggressive vegetal notes.

Lake’s Folly Chardonnay 2002 – Made by unassuming winemaker Rod Kempe, Lake’s Folly is one of the few producers making Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon-based wines in the Hunter Valley. Credited as the first boutique winery in Australia, demand is such that each year’s release is sold out within a few months. The 2002 shows a pronounced toast and vanilla bouquet, wrapped in smoky gauze. The palate displays notes of peach, pineapple and a weighty intensity. At 12 years old it is really starting to hit its stride.

Domaine Paul Pillot Chassagne-Montrachet Vieilles Vignes 2011 – Produced from Pinot Noir vines with an average age of 35 years. Exuberant red cherry and raspberry fruit, underpinned by oak and hints of tobacco and game. Overheard a sommelier describing this wine as a “macho Montrachet”.

Domaine Denis Bachelet Gevrey-Chambertin 2008 – A small producer known for making wines with incredible finesse. The 2008 has a bright crimson robe with an elegant nose of talc, spice and red fruit. Very fresh, with dry powdery tannins and fine acidity. Excellent depth and purity of fruit.

Domaine Hudelot-Noëllat Nuits-Saint-Georges Premier Cru Les Murgers 2009 – From one of the top producers in Burgundy. Medium ruby appearance with a smudgy rim. Intense Pinot character with spice and perfume aromas. Bright, polished fruit on the palate, light-bodied with sweet anise notes. Majestic pedigree.

Le Pauillac de Château Latour 2006 – The third wine of Château Latour, produced since 1973. There is a nice definition to this wine, which ticks off all the boxes for a classic Bordeaux. Blackcurrant, cedar box and well-integrated oak flavours combine to form a wine that offers pleasurable drinking but is just a tad linear.

Domaine Alain Voge, Cornas Les Chailles 2011 – A chewy, meaty wine with savoury tannins and hints of game and leather. Firm, concentrated and well-structured.

Saturday, 2 August 2014

Sold on Sake

A short holiday was spent exploring the city of Nagoya, and probably eating too much food than would be considered healthy. My host for the day expressed amazement when just an hour and a half after a multi-course lunch I pronounced my readiness for the next gustatory adventure. Could you blame me though? This was Japan, known for its rich culinary heritage and devotion to perfection, where a single wrongly placed fern in a delicately arranged dish could cause serious consternation.

No one should go to Nagoya without trying its famous Hitsu-mabushi, or grilled eel with rice. Served with a variety of seasonings including seaweed, green onions and wasabi, the simple dish can be eaten in one of three ways; as is, with a mixture of all three seasonings, or with a mixture of all three seasonings and clear fish stock. There are two convenient locations in the city to try this dish which are both in department stores, Atsuta Horai-ken on the 10th floor of Matsuzakaya (South Wing) and Bincho on the 8th floor of LACHIC. The latter has a window through which you can see the chefs preparing the eel.

Japan is also famous for sake, commonly called rice wine. This is a misnomer, as the production of sake bears more similarity to beer than wine. The main ingredient of sake is rice, of which the variety Yamadanishiki is the most popular. The rice has an internal starchy core called shinpaku that must be converted into sugar before the yeast can work on it. Before the fourth century this was achieved through a method known as kuchikami-sake, where rice or other cereals were chewed and then spat into a container. The amylase enzymes present in saliva converted the starch into sugar. Wild yeast present in the environment then fed on the sugar and turned it into alcohol.

Fortunately, modern production methods are more efficient and hygienic. The conversion of starch to sugar is now achieved through koji-kin, a black mold that is sprinkled onto steamed rice to make komekoji. Steamed rice, water and yeast are then added to make shubo, or yeast starter. The next step is the fermentation itself, or danjimoki, a three-step process of mixing the shubo with steamed rice, komekoji and water over four days. The mash is called moromi, which is then pressed, filtered, pasteurised and bottled.

There are two broad categories of sake which are futsu-shu and tokutei meisho-shu. Futsu-shu is ordinary table sake and accounts for the majority of sake in the market while tokutei meisho-shu refers to premium sake with special designations determined by the National Tax Agency. The specifications for tokutei meisho are shown below (with thanks to the National Research Institute of Brewing).



Seimai-buai refers to the degree of polishing the rice has received. For example, a seimai-buai of 40% has had 60% of the husk polished away. The outer husk contains proteins and oils that are not desirable to the production of delicate sake thus the more polished the rice, the more refined the taste. Beyond a certain amount (around 35%) however the taste of the sake does not improve and the cost rises significantly. The picture below shows the various degrees of polishing.


(photo credit: Hakushika Sake)

The Japanese take their sake seriously, so much so that each season brings about a different type of sake. In autumn hiyaoroshi is drunk, a sake that has been pasteurised once and aged from the preceding winter. From winter to early spring shiboritate, or fresh sake, is consumed. This is sake that has just been pressed and bottled, often without pasteurisation. In hot summers, a chilled glass of namazake (unpasteurised sake) is most welcome. There are also unfiltered (nigorisake) and sparkling sakes available. The former has a milky texture while the latter tends to be sweet and low in alcohol, though not always.

Being light, smooth and delicate, sake is an ideal companion for many Japanese dishes. Its flavour dissipates rapidly (unlike wine, a long finish is not a positive trait in fine sake), making it a great drink to reset the palate between courses. In combination with fish dishes in particular, sake has the effect of mellowing the fishy taste to create a more balanced flavour.